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  • 关于保护和返还殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义、非道德方式 获取之文物的青岛建议书

关于保护和返还殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义、非道德方式获取之文物的青岛建议书

2024年6月20日,殖民背景流失文物保护与返还国际研讨会在中国青岛举行,来自28个国家和2个国际组织的代表出席会议或以视频方式分享交流。经会议讨论,来自亚美尼亚、阿塞拜疆、柬埔寨、中国、古巴、洪都拉斯、伊朗、吉尔吉斯斯坦、马尔代夫、缅甸、巴基斯坦、斯里兰卡、叙利亚、泰国、土库曼斯坦、阿联酋、乌兹别克斯坦、越南、也门等国的参会代表达成广泛共识,并就历史上流失文物的保护与返还提出以下建议: 

1.承认文物(包括人类遗骸,下同)是构成文明以及国家遗产与认同的基本要素,对文化遗产表达和原属国人民享有文化权利至关重要;

2.注意到由于殖民势力的非正式影响(以下简称“殖民背景”),文物被征用、盗掘、非法出口、贩运或以暴力、强迫、胁迫等手段获取,尤其是在武装冲突期间或通过其他非正义或非道德方式而流失,这对原属国及其人民充分享有文化权利造成了无法估量的损失;

3.认识到原属国及其人民渴望保护和返还对他们具有深刻精神、历史和文化价值的文物,并重申推动和促成此类文物返还原属国是一项道德或法律义务,以促进接触并享有文化遗产的基本权利,并确保全球文化和公共政策的有效实施;

4.深切关注当前的国际文书日益需要为殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之文物提供坚实法律依据,并对各国在此类文物返还声索中遭遇的潜在国内法律体系障碍深表关切;

5.深切关注日益增多的关于腐败的报告以及博物馆藏品丢失、被盗或损坏的事件,强调审查博物馆藏品的透明度和安全性的重要性,尤其针对那些具有历史或文化敏感性或所有权存在争议的藏品,以确保其世代流传和保存;

6.忆及去殖民化浪潮这一全球现象以及《给予殖民地国家和人民独立宣言》,并强调对殖民遗产的反思和认识进程,这一进程在文化遗产领域催生了广泛的去殖民化讨论,这些均已成为“南南合作”和“南北对话”的重要组成部分;

7.忆及2014年第四届文化财产返还国际专家会议形成的《关于保护和返还非法出境的被盗掘文化财产的敦煌宣言》,以及呼吁就文化财产归还和返还原属国开展开放包容的国际对话的《2022年世界文化政策与可持续发展会议宣言》;

8.赞许持有国的法律改革举措,以及博物馆、博物馆协会和其他文化组织针对殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之藏品制定并实施职业道德准则、指南或声明,并就溯源研究和可能的返还与原属国开展合作;

9.注意到数字技术和在线平台具有超越地理界线的潜力,能够促进信息共享并加强协调与协同增效;

10.注意到亚洲国家也曾受到殖民占领的影响,许多具有独特文化特性和意义的文物从这些国家流失;欢迎在全球文明倡议以及决心构建人类命运共同体的引领下开展区域合作,尤其是通过针对亚洲文化遗产保护的各种对话机制以及亚洲文化遗产保护联盟等。

建议:

1.鼓励各国和文物持有者认识到殖民获取的非正义性,并承认纠正这种非正义性是指导殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之文物藏品处理政策和方法的基本原则之一;

2.应当采取一切适当措施,防止对殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之文物藏品及相关数据遭受盗窃、不当安置、不当管理、损坏或其他一切关涉安全性与透明度之威胁,并促进和最大限度地发挥原属国所认定的此类文物在其历史、科学研究、艺术、宗教和其他非物质价值等方面具有的文化意义;

3.鼓励博物馆、图书馆、档案馆或其他文化或科学机构等文物持有者为他们怀疑来源于殖民背景的藏品编制清单,包括数字形式的清单,并使公众、原属国和国际社会能够(在线)获取这些清单;

4.鼓励文物持有者使用现代信息技术数字化复制和展示具有殖民背景的或据信通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之藏品。此类藏品的数字化和展览形式(包括在线展览)应通过协商与合作,确保得到原属国的参与和同意,以尊重原属国赋予此类文物的意义和阐释;

5.文物持有者应尽快对其具有殖民背景的或据信通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之藏品进行适当的溯源研究,并在这方面加强与原属国的合作,包括允许无限制和无条件地访问来源文件,按要求提供文物的数字形式和其他相关信息,与考古学、历史学和人类学等领域的专家交流知识,并与原属国分享研究成果;

6.鼓励各国就返还殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之文物启动透明的讨论,探索多元化和灵活性解决方案,以实现真正的合作,并在法律、政治或道德基础上达成共识;

7.鼓励各国采用专门法律,确保原属国的合法声索不受被请求国的时效规定或不可让与法规等私法阻碍,并鼓励考虑使用文化财产归还与返还政府间委员会通过的调解和解程序规则等,以请求返还当前国际框架和道德准则涵盖范围之外的文物;

8.鼓励各国与专家、社群、高校和其他研究机构密切合作,开展关于殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之文物的保护和返还学术研究,实施针对博物馆、艺术品交易商和其他利益相关者的能力建设项目,并协助原属国提升其文化遗产保护执法部门的水平; 

9.鼓励各国利用数字技术和在线平台,提高公众意识并开展教育活动,以向公众普及文物的去殖民化及对其保护的必要性;

10.鼓励各国在殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之文物返还后,为科学、文化和教育之目的,对返还文物的保护和展示共同做出安排或制定业务框架,包括但不限于共同管理、获取数字化材料、藏品交流、联合研究和人员交流,并在共同关心的领域建立可持续伙伴关系;

11.鼓励各国更多地关注亚洲国家殖民背景下流失或通过其他非正义或非道德方式获取之文物所面临的保护和返还问题与挑战,并就此开展更广泛的对话与合作。


Qingdao Recommendations for the Protection and Return of Cultural Objects Removed from Colonial Contexts or Acquired by Other Unjustifiable or Unethical Means 

The International Conference on the Protection and Return of Cultural Objects Removed from Colonial Contexts was held in Qingdao, China on June 20, 2024. representatives from 28 countries and 2 international organisations attended the conference or shared ideas and communicated through video. After discussions, the participants from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Honduras, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, Turkmenistan , United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, and Yemen have reached a broad consensus and made the following recommendations for the protection and return of cultural objects lost over historical periods: 

1.ACKNOWLEDGING that cultural objects (including human remains) constitute a basic element of civilization and of national heritage and identity, and are integral in the expression of cultural heritage and the enjoyment of cultural rights of people from countries of origin; 

2.NOTING that as a result of colonial occupation or informal influence of colonial powers (hereinafter referred to as “colonial contexts”), cultural objects that have been expropriated, illicitly excavated, illegally exported, trafficked, or acquired by violence, coercion, duress, and especially those removed during armed conflict, or by other unjustifiable or unethical means, constitute an immeasurable loss for the countries of origin and for the full enjoyment of the cultural rights of their peoples; 

3.RECOGNIZING the desire of countries of origin and their peoples for the protection and return of cultural objects that hold profound spiritual, historical and cultural value to them, and REAFFIRMING that the promotion and facilitation of the return of such cultural objects to countries of origin is an ethical or legal duty to foster the fundamental right of access to, and enjoyment of cultural heritage, and to ensure the effective implementation of global cultural and public policies; 

4.EXPRESSING DEEP CONCERN over the increasing need for current international instruments to provide solid legal grounds for the return of cultural objects removed from colonial contexts or acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means, and over potential challenges in the domestic legal frameworks encountered by states with regard to claims for the return of such cultural objects; 

5.EXPRESSING DEEP CONCERN over the growing number of reports of corruption, and incidents of missing, stolen or damaged collections from museums, and UNDERSCORING the importance of reviewing the transparency and security surrounding museum collections, especially those that are historically or culturally sensitive, or of contested ownership, in order to ensure the continuity and preservation of collections for the future generations; 

6.RECALLING the wave of decolonization as a global phenomenon, and the Declaration on the Granting of Independence of Colonial Countries and Peoples, and UNDERLINING the process of reflection on, and awareness of the colonial legacy which has led to widespread discourse on decolonization within the field of cultural heritage, all of which have become an important part of South-South cooperation and North-South dialogue; 

7.RECALLING the Dunhuang Recommendation on the Protection and Return of Illegally Exported Cultural Property Derived from Clandestine Excavations concluded at the 4th International Conference of Experts on Return of Cultural Property 2014, and the MONDIACULT 2022 Declaration calling for an open and inclusive international dialogue on the return and restitution of cultural property to countries of origin; 

8.APPLAUDING the law reform initiatives of possessor countries, and the initiatives of museums, museum associations and other cultural organisations to develop and implement codes of ethics, guidelines or statements on collections or collection items removed from colonial contexts or acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means, and to cooperate with countries of origin in provenance research and potential return; 

9.NOTING that digital technologies and online platforms have the potential to transcend geographical boundaries, enabling information sharing and strengthening coordination and synergies; 

10.NOTING that Asian countries have also been affected by colonial occupation, and many cultural objects with a unique cultural identity and meaning have been removed from these countries; WELCOMING regional cooperation through, inter alia, the dialogue mechanisms focusing on Asian cultural heritage conservation and the Alliance for Cultural Heritage in Asia, under the Global Civilization Initiative and with the determination to build a global community of shared future. 

RECOMMEND THAT:

1.States and heritage holders are encouraged to recognize the injustice of colonial acquisition, and to acknowledge that redressing such injustice stands as one of the foundational principles guiding the approach and policy for dealing with collections of cultural objects removed from colonial contexts or acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means; 

2.All appropriate measures should be taken to prevent theft, misplacement, mismanagement, damage or any other threat to the security and transparency of collections of cultural objects removed from colonial contexts, or acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means and associated data, and to promote and maximize the cultural significance of such cultural objects in terms of their historical, scientific research, artistic, religious and other intangible values as determined by the countries of origin;

3.Heritage holders such as museums, libraries, archives or any other cultural or scientific institutions, are encouraged to prepare an inventory of collections they suspect derived from colonial contexts, including in digital form, and to enable (online) access to the public, countries of origin, and the international community; 

4.Heritage holders are encouraged to use modern information technology to digitally reproduce and exhibit collections with colonial backgrounds or believed to be acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means. The form of digitization and exhibition (including online exhibition) of such collections should ensure the participation and consent of countries of origin, through consultation and cooperation, in a manner that respects the significance and interpretation countries of origin give to such cultural objects; 

5.Heritage holders should expeditiously carry out appropriate provenance research on their collections with colonial backgrounds or believed to be acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means, and in this regard, should strengthen cooperation with countries of origin, including by allowing unlimited and unconditional access to provenance documentation, providing cultural objects in digital forms and other relevant information as requested, exchanging knowledge with experts in areas such as archaeology, history, and anthropology, and sharing findings with countries of origin; 

6.States are encouraged to initiate transparent discussion about the return of cultural objects removed from colonial contexts or acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means, and to explore pluralistic and flexible solutions, in order to achieve genuine cooperation and to reach consensus on a legal, political, or ethical foundation; 

7.States are encouraged to adopt specific legislation to ensure that legitimate claims by countries of origin are not subject to private law obstacles such as the statute of limitations or the inalienability laws of the requested country, and are encouraged to consider the possibility of using, inter alia, the process in the rules of procedure on mediation and conciliation adopted by the ICPRCP, on request for the return of cultural objects that goes beyond current international frameworks and ethical guidelines; 

8.States are encouraged to work closely with experts, communities, universities, and other research institutions to conduct academic research on the protection and return of cultural objects removed from colonial contexts or acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means, to implement capacity-building programmes for museums, art dealers and other stakeholders, and to assist countries of origin in improving law enforcement for the protection of cultural heritage; 

9.States are encouraged to raise public awareness and provide educational initiatives to inform the general public about the decolonization of cultural objects and the necessity to protect them, leveraging digital technologies and online platforms; 

10.States are encouraged, after the return of cultural objects removed from colonial contexts or acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means, to jointly establish arrangements or operational frameworks for the protection and exhibition of returned cultural objects, for scientific, cultural and educational purposes including, inter alia, shared stewardship, access to digitalized materials, exchange of collections, joint research and personnel interchange, and to build up sustainable partnership in areas of their common interest; 

11.States are encouraged to give greater consideration and to engage in a broader dialogue and cooperation over the issues and challenges of protection and return of cultural objects removed from Asian countries from colonial contexts or acquired by other unjustifiable or unethical means.

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